The Painting of Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains(富春山居图) was created by Huang Gongwang during the period from 1347 to 1350 in Yuan Dynasty. The painting is created to present Zen Master Wuyong. The whole painting takes the beautiful Fuchun River as the grand scene of the painting scroll. The ink used for painting is simple and elegant. The arrangement of mountains and waters is quite appropriate. The simultaneousness of use of the ink in strongness, lightness, wetness and dryness makes the change in painting. It is the representative of Huang Gongwang. The painting of Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountain is the masterpiece of Huang Gongwang, a great master of painting in Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368)
The History of the Painting of Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains
By the end of Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), the painting was preserved by the collector Wu Hongyu, who liked this painting so much that even burnt the scroll to be his belongings in his next life. Fortunately, his nephew saved if from the fire, and the painting was burnt into two parts, and the former one is a shorter one, and historically named Shengshan Painting(剩山图, The Painting of Remained Mountains) after the careful repair, and the latter is a longer part and known as the Wuyong Shi Juan(无用师卷, Scroll of Master Wuyong)
A part of Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountain, click here to see the original painting >>>
During the reign of Emperor Qianlong, a plagiaristic painting of the Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains was sent to the Forbidden City, and Emperor Qianlong liked it very much, and added 55 comments to the blank part of the painting scroll. In 1746, the authentic painting was sent to the Forbidden City, and then it avoided the harm of Emperor Qianlong. The front one is called Ziming Scroll(子明卷), which is a counterfeit, and the latter is Wuyong Shi Juan, which is the real work of Huang Gongwang. And Emperor Qianlong took it as the authentic one, and put its imperial seal to mark the painting, and also some officials’ handwritings were also left on the painting. To the modern times, it was rechecked and reconfirmed as the fake. Today, the Shengshan Painting Scroll is collected in Zhejiang Provincial Museum. And the Wuyong Shi Juan and Ziming Scrolls were both collected in Taipei National Palace Museum.
The painting of Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountain was created by Huang Gongwang at the age of 79. Once, he returned to Fuchun Mountain from Songjiang, which is today’s Shanghai, accompanied by his friend Zen Master Wuyong. Wuyong hoped Huang painted a long scroll for him. And Huang agreed, and he completed his approximately 10-meter-long scroll of painting in a short time.
About Wuyong Shijuan Scroll of Painting(无用师卷)
Wuyong Shijuan Scroll of Painting is the latter part of the whole painting scroll of the Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains. In 1347, Painter Huang Gongwang created this painting and completed in 1350 for his mate Zheng Chu(郑樗), who was a Taoist and the student of Taoist Jin Zhiyang of Yuan Dynasty. The courtesy name of Zheng Chu was Wu Yong, and the humble name was Sanmu. His name also vividly released his identity as a Taoist. Chu was is a type of tree of heaven, which was considered as a useless timber in the eyes of earthly people but quite useful in the mind of Taoist sages like Zhuang Zi, and in the Taoist Classic of Zhuang Zi, this type of tree was respected to be the symbol of longevity and eternality but disliked by the common people. Zheng Chu was specialized in the calligraphic exercise, especially the ancient official script with the feature of Sun Shu’ao Stele. The section of Wuyong Shijuan was an ink painting with a height of 33 centimeters and a width of 639.9 centimeters.
A part of Wuyong Shijuan Scroll of Painting, click here to see the original painting >>>
About Shengshan Scroll of Painting(剩山图)
After the burning, the front was recovered and redecorated and named Shengshan Scroll of Painting.
In 1669, it was reserved by Wang Tingbing, and later transferred among different collectors, and finally, there was no news about it any more. Up to the period of the Anti-Japanese War (1937-1945), the painting was collected by Wu Hufan(吴湖帆, 1894-1968), a famous modern painter of China, and he just exchanged the antiques with someone, and finally got this treasure with a cost of an ancient bronze ware. He valued this painting very much and even renamed his residence as “A Family with a Corner of Dachi’s Painting of the Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains”. Sha Menghai (沙孟海), a great master of calligrapher and worked in Zhejiang Museum at the time, got this news and felt uncalm. And he thought the national treasure should be better preserved by the country rather than the individual, so he since then was busy with moving between Shanghai and Hangzhou to persuade Wu out of preserving the painting, but Wu refused. Sha felt so unhappy and invited Qian Jingtang(钱镜塘, 1907-1983) and Xie Zhiliu(谢稚柳, 1910-1997 ) to help him with persuading Wu. Finally, they succeeded, and The Painting of Shengshan was eventually collected in Zhejiang Museum and becomes the No.1 treasure of Zhejiang Museum.
A part of Shengshan Scroll of Painting, click here to see the original painting >>>
About Ziming Scroll of Painting (子明卷)
Wang Hui’s copy is so delicate that even better than the original one. Emperor Qianlong mistook it as the original one and gave 55 inscriptions on it. However, it is a fake one. The painter was Wang Hui (王翚, 1632-1717) known as Wang Shigu in the painting circle. He was born in Changshu and the representative of Yushan Painting School, (it has been introduced in Changshu Travel Guide in details) in China. And also as famous as Wang Jian, Wang Shimin and Wang Yuanqi, and together called Four Wangs in history of art. He advocated his painting theory:”to get a great achievement in painting, painters had better control the ways of Yuan Dynasty to make the mountains and gullies of Song Dynasty and shape the artistic conception and charm of Tang Dynasty”. He was respected to be the Sage of Painting at the time.
Actually, there are at least five copies of the Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains created by Wang Hui, and three of them are available in the world. The earliest one was copied by Wang Hui at the age of 44 years old, and now collected in The Freer Gallery of Art USA. The second one was copied in 1686 at the age of 55 years old, and now collected in Liaoning Museum. The third one was copied in 1702 at the age of 71 years old, and now it is collected in Taipei National Palace Museum. The third one is the most famous copy of Wang Hui, in which the inscription of Wang Hui was deleted and the inscription of Huang Gongwang was remained. It is the historically famous Painting Scroll of Ziming.
A part of Ziming Scroll of Painting, click here to see the original painting >>>
The Copies of Dwellings in the Fuchun Mountains in History
In history, except the original painting of Huang Gongwang and the famous copy of Wang Hui, there were another three famous copies in Yuan and Ming Dynasties, created respectively Huang Jin in Yuan Dynasty, and Shen Zhou and Zhang Hong in Ming Dynasty, two great masters of painting in Wumen Painting School, apart from Dong Qichang’s similar copy.
- Huang Jin(黄溍, 1277-1357) was a litterateur of Yuan Dynasty born in Jinhua, Zhejiang province. He was the first man according to the history we know that copied the painting of the Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountain. Gao Shiqi(高士奇, 1644-1703) confirmed it was the work of Huang Jin, except Xu Bangda, an art appreciator of modern China who thought it was a work of Ming Dynasty. Today, Zhang Daqian, a great master of painting in modern China, followed the standpoint of Gao Shiqi. Such a version of painting initially was reserved in Lanrun Hall(朗润堂) in the reign of Emperor Kangxi of Qing Dynasty. Up to the modern times, it was respectively collected by Chen Qu(陈蘧) at Dingshan Hall(定山堂) of Hangzhou, and painter Wu Zishen(吴子深) of Suzhou, and finally owned by Zhang Daqian at Dafeng Hall(大风堂).
- Shen Zhou(沈周, 1427-1509) used to collect the original of the painting of Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountain in late Ming Dynasty. Similar to Wu Hongyu, he liked the painting very much. Unfortunately, the painting was stolen when he had one of his friends inscribe on it. Occasionally, he found the stolen painting on the marketplace, and felt so amazed and excited, and he rushed back home to collect money to buy the painting, but it had been sold before he returned. He felt so bad and burst into tears. To continue his love to this painting, he tried to copy the painting in accordance with his memory. And this is the version of Shen Zhou, and now collected in Beijing Palace Museum as well.
A part of Shen Zhou's painting copy, click here to see the original painting >>>
- The copy of Zhang Hong(张宏, 1577-1652) is widely known as the Copy of Huang Gongwang's Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountain. In academic circle, it was considered as the copy closest to the original, and now collected in Beijing Palace Museum or the Forbidden City of China.
- Afterwards, the original painting reappeared and collected by Dong Qichang. At the old age of Dong Qichang, it was sold to Wu Zhengzhi, the grandfather of Wu Hongyu, and then it was burnt into two parts before Wu Hongyu died. Actually, Dong Qichang preferred the painting of Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains very much, and once copied a similar painting entitled Copy of Huang Gongwang’s Painting of Fuchun Daling Mountain(仿黄公望富春大岭图), which was considered as the excellent works of painting at the old age of Dong Qichang.
A part of Dong Qichang's Copy of Huang Gongwang’s Painting of Fuchun Daling Mountain, click here to see the original painting >>>